Hepatic Lipidosis Most common form of severe liver disease in cats. Most often seen in obese cats suddenly subjected to dietary deprivation. May also be associated with diabetes mellitus, drug injury and toxicity. Thedisease seems to result from the sudden mobilisation of the bodies fat stores which quickly overwhelms the liver's ability to process the raw fat into useful nutrients. The fat accumulates in the liver rapidly and causes acute liver failure. The end result is a swollen, greasy liver which is fragile and yellow to see. The cats present with complete lack of appetite and many signs of acute liver failure. Treatment is based on the provision of a highly nutritious diet to provide the energy required to run the body, stop the ongoing mobilisation of the fat stores, and drive the liver to decrease the fatty accumulation in the liver. Treatment is difficult and a long process.
Alkaline phosphatase is homodimeric enzyme, meaning it is formed with two molecules. Three metal ions, two Zn and one Mg, are contained in the catalytic sites, and both types are crucial for enzymatic activity to occur. The enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of monoesters in phosphoric acid which can additionally catalyze a transphosphorylation reaction with large concentrations of phosphate acceptors. While the main features of the catalytic mechanism and activity are conserved between mammalian and bacterial alkaline phosphate, mammalian alkaline phosphatase has higher a specific activity and K m values thus a lower affinity, more alkaline pH optimum, lower heat stability, and are typically membrane bound and are inhibited by l-amino acids and peptides via a means of uncompetitive mechanism. These properties noticeably differ between different mammalian alkaline phosphatase isozymes and therefore showcase a difference in in vivo functions.
Elevated alkaline phosphatase is most commonly caused by liver disease or bone disorders. Testing for ALP primarily consists of obtaining a blood sample from a patient along with several other tests for the disorder in question that may be associated with the increase in ALP in the blood serum.  It is possible to distinguish between the different forms (isoenzymes) of ALP produced by different types of tissues in the body, in order to pinpoint what's causing the increase of ALP, in order to treat the patient for either liver disease or bone disorder. A more rapid way for testing ALP concentration is by using p -nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate.  The required volume of serum is 5 cubic mm. for each testing. The sample is first incubated for 30 min. at 38 °C, in a buffered solution in the presence of p -nitrophenyl phosphate. By the action of ALP, phosphate groups are removed from the substrate and para - nitrophenol is liberated giving off a yellow color in solution which can be measured spectrophotometrically.