In some countries, phytoestrogenic plants have been used for centuries in the treatment of menstrual and menopausal problems, as well as for fertility problems.  Plants used that have been shown to contain phytoestrogens include Pueraria mirifica ,  and its close relative, kudzu ,  Angelica ,  fennel and anise .  In a rigorous study, the use of one such source of phytoestrogen, red clover , has been shown to be safe, but ineffective in relieving menopausal symptoms  ( black cohosh is also used for menopausal symptoms, but does not contain phytoestrogens.  ) Panax Ginseng contains phytoestrogens and has been used for menopausal symptoms . [ citation needed ]
NSAIDS have antipyretic activity and can be used to treat fever.   Fever is caused by elevated levels of prostaglandin E2 , which alters the firing rate of neurons within the hypothalamus that control thermoregulation.   Antipyretics work by inhibiting the enzyme COX, which causes the general inhibition of prostanoid biosynthesis ( PGE2 ) within the hypothalamus .   PGE2 signals to the hypothalamus to increase the body's thermal set point.   Ibuprofen has been shown more effective as an antipyretic than paracetamol (acetaminophen).   Arachidonic acid is the precursor substrate for cyclooxygenase leading to the production of prostaglandins F, D & E.
"It's very frightening. There seems to be no safe treatment window" for NSAIDs once you've had a heart attack, said Anne-Marie Schjerning Olsen, a cardiologist at Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte who, along with colleagues, reviewed the records of nearly 100,000 patients who had suffered a heart attack between 1997 and 2009. About 44 percent of them received at least one prescription for an NSAID. Among people who didn't take NSAIDs, Olsen says, the cardiovascular risk after a first heart attack declines rapidly during the first year. "After five to 10 years it's almost the same" as the general population, she says. But heart attack survivors who took any NSAID other than low-dose aspirin had a higher risk of having a second heart attack or dying. The overall death risk rose 59 percent one year after the heart attack and 63 percent five years after, she said. Similarly, the risk of coronary death or a second heart attack rose 30 percent one year after the initial heart attack and 41 percent five years after.